Since the advent of lithium batteries, research and development work around it has been ongoing. Lithium-ion battery cathode materials have always been a topic of debate. Today we will come and talk about Lifepo4 battery with lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) as the cathode material.
The full name of Lifepo4 battery should be lithium iron phosphate lithium ion battery, the name is too long, referred to as Lifepo4 battery. Because its performance is particularly suitable for power applications, the word "power" is added to the name, namely Lifepo4 power battery. Some people call it "LiFe (LiFe) power battery".
Using LiFePO4 material as positive electrode cost
The cathode materials currently used as lithium ion batteries are mainly LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 and LiFePO4. Among these metal elements constituting the positive electrode material of the battery, cobalt (Co) is the most expensive, and the storage amount is small, nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn) are relatively inexpensive, and iron (Fe) is the cheapest. The price of the cathode material is also consistent with the price of these metals. Therefore, a lithium ion battery made of a LiFePO4 positive electrode material should be the cheapest.
Advantages and advantages of Lifepo4 battery as a new energy vehicle
The advantage is better safety,longer service life, does not contain any heavy metals and rare metals (low cost of raw materials); no memory effect; high temperature resistance; can easily pass the acupuncture experiment.
The slightest potential is that there are some performance defects in lithium iron phosphate, such as low tap density and compaction density, poor low temperature performance,small battery capacity,the same battery capacity.Lifepo4 battery is heavier and larger, seriously affected the battery life of electric vehicles. In addition, Lifepo4 battery is basically not recyclable after they are scrapped, and there is no recoverable value.
Why Chinese car companies favor Lifepo4 battery
The development of China's new energy vehicle power lithium battery has always been directional disputes - the battle for lithium manganate, ternary lithium, lithium iron phosphate has not subsided. However, at present, the mainstream domestic new energy vehicle companies basically use Lifepo4 battery, and there are three reasons for careful analysis.
First, the development of China's new energy vehicles must ensure the use of safe, reliable, stable and low-cost power batteries. Among them, safety and reliability are the first. Without safety, there will be no future for the new energy automobile industry; Tesla uses the best Panasonic battery in the ternary lithium battery, and can't avoid three fires within five weeks.
Fortunately, Tesla's advanced vehicle safety design did not cause personal injury or death, and China's new energy auto companies in terms of vehicle safety design, how many can reach Tesla's level? Lifepo4 battery have inherent advantages in terms of safety.
Second, at present, the core technologies of lithium manganate and ternary lithium are in the hands of Japanese and Korean companies. Especially the ternary lithium, whether it is technology, technology or equipment, Japan and South Korea industry leaders have reached a very mature and stable stage. If we insist on the ternary route on the new energy vehicle power battery, I am afraid that we are still chasing the road, and it has already been killed by the international giants, and there is no way to talk about overtaking. Lifepo4 battery are different. Japanese and Korean companies have basically not been involved, and the main international competitors are from the United States.
However, the technological level between China and the United States is not much different. With the acquisition of A123 by Wanxiang Group, in fact, Chinese companies have mastered the world's highest technology and technology of Lifepo4 battery. As long as the advantages of investment and solidification are increased, China's new energy vehicles will have the possibility of overtaking in corners.
Third, at present, the global nickel and cobalt resources are tight, and the material formula of ternary lithium battery, whether it is lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide or lithium cobalt aluminum aluminate, is inseparable from two kinds of precious metals. A large number of applications will lead to skyrocketing market prices. These two metals are scarce in China. More than 90% of China's cobalt use needs to be imported. Both precious metals have international futures trading, and the prices are not only high but also fluctuating.
A big reason why China's new energy vehicle promotion did not meet the policy expectations was that prices were high. Among them, the most important reason is that the price of power lithium batteries, which account for nearly 50% of the cost of new energy vehicles, remains high. The result of the ternary route is that the price of new energy vehicles is higher, and the government's subsidies are required to be more, and market promotion can never be achieved.